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About Kerman

 

     Kerman is the second largest city in Iran and is rich in history, culture, and art. The inhabitants of the city are famous for their hospitality. They are hospitable to students from all over Iran who are studying at the universities in Kerman.

 

Kerman from Academic Perspective

     Kerman is an academic city with different universities. The universities offer undergraduate, graduate and postgraduate degree programs. Many famous people in Iran have been graduated from Kerman Universities. Kerman Universities are proud of their many years of service as the flagship of higher education in the country with world standard academic programs, highly qualified, and dynamic academic staff and outstanding infrastructures.

 

 

 

Kerman Geography and Location

     Kerman province is one of the 31 provinces of Iran. Kerman is in the southeast of Iran with its administrative center in the city of Kerman. This beautiful city is located on a high margin of Kavir-e Lut (Lut Desert) in the south-central of Iran. The city is 1755 m (5758 ft.) above the sea level, making it third in elevation among provincial capitals in Iran. At the 2011 census, its population was 821,374 in 221389 households making it the 10th most populous city of Iran. Kerman has an area of 180,726 km² that encompasses nearly 11 percent of the land area of Iran. The important cities of this province include: Baft, Bardsir, Bam, Jiroft, Ravar, Rafsanjan, South Roodbar, Zarand, Sirjan, Shahrbabak, Anbarabad, Ghaleh Ganj, Kerman, Kouhbanan, Kahnouj, and Manoujan. 

 

 

 

Kerman Climate

     The city's many districts are surrounded by mountains that bring variety to Kerman's year-round weather pattern. The northern part of the city is located in an arid desert area, while the highland of the southern part of the city enjoys a more moderate climate. The city of Kerman has a moderate climate. The average annual rainfall is 135 mm. Because it is located close to the Kavir-e lut, Kerman has hot summers, and in the spring it often has violent sand storms. Otherwise, its climate is relatively cool.

     Due to its topography, special climate, environmental and natural situation, and vastness, Kerman province offers a climatic diversity of hot, to extremely dry, very dry, cold, and a countryside which nears steppe, semi-arid, to desert climates, which is rare and unique in this regard.

 

Kerman History and Culture

     The city of Kerman boasts a long history, and some historians and scholars have asserted that the record of human settlement in Kerman dates back to the fourth millennium BC; a city which, in terms of age, is one of the oldest cities of the ancient country of Iran, and one of Iranian five historical cities.

     Kerman is one of the five historical cities of Iran. From the industrial, political, cultural and scientific points of view, it is the most important city in the southeast of Iran. The economy of Kerman is mostly based on farming and also mining. Sarcheshmeh Copper mine is the second biggest copper mine in the world after the one located in Chile. Pistachio is an important source of economy in Kerman, with Kerman province being the biggest producer of pistachio in Iran and all over the world. Carpet weaving, an old tradition, is one of the main industries of the city and Kermanian carpet are renowned internationally.

 

Some of the Most Popular Sightseeing of Kerman Province

  • Bam Citadel

     Bam Citadel is an ancient city. The creation and growth of the city was based on the underground irrigation canals, the Qanāts of which Bam has preserved some of the earliest evidence in Iran. The archaeological discoveries of ancient Qanāts in the south-eastern suburbs of Bam citadel are datable to the beginning of the 2nd century BC. Bam also prospered because of pilgrims visiting its Zoroastrian fire temple (dating to early Sassanid times) and as a commercial and trading center on the famous Silk Road.

     It should be noticed that the Arg was originally founded during the Sassanid period (224-637 AD) and while some of the surviving structures date from before the 12th century, most of what remains was built during the Safavid period (1502-1722). During Safavid times, the city occupied six square kilometers, was surrounded by a rampart with 38 towers, and had between 9000-13,000 inhabitants.

 

 

     One of the noticeable points about Bam Citadel is its castle.  The castle is the most representative example of a fortified medieval town built in vernacular technique using mud layers (Chineh) combined with mud bricks (Khesht). This castle is situated at the top of an artificial hill in the northwest quadrant of Arg-e-Bam. This artificial hill elevates the castle approximately 5 meters above the surrounding urban fabric. The castle complex occupies an area of 315 meters wide along the east-west axis by 270 meters long along the north-south axis.

     In 2003, a major earthquake struck Bam, reducing major sections of Bam Citadel to rubbles.

     Arg-e-Bam is listed by UNESCO as part of the World Heritage Site "Bam and its Cultural Landscape".

  • Rayen Citadel

     Rayen Citadel is an adobe castle situated in Kerman Province south-west of the city of Rayen and is considered the biggest earthen structure of Kerman province after Bam Citadel. Rayen displays all the architectural elements of a deserted citadel. Rayen Citadel was inhabited until 150 years ago and, although believed to be between 500 and 1,000 years old, may in fact have foundations from the pre-Islamic Sassanid era. It appears extremely well preserved, considering the numerous natural disasters that have been destroying similar structures nearby.

     Rayen Citadel spans 20,000 square meters, remaining a symbol of the residential fortresses during the ancient times. It covers an almost perfect square area and consists of a number of towers on its perimeter. It is surrounded by a 10 meter wall and on its southern side an artificial moat had been dug to add to the Citadel’s security. The Citadel has its main entrance located on its eastern side.

     Just like other fortresses, it consists of the public quarter and the aristocratic zone. The essential sectors such as Zoorkhaneh (gymnasium for a traditional Persian sport), mosque, and stable can be seen in the citadel. Adobe is the main material used in its construction.

  • Meymand Village

     Meymand is a wonderful village in Kerman province and 35 km of Shahr-e-babak which is said to be the birthplace of the founder of the Persian Sassanid dynasty. Maymand is believed to be one of human's primary residences in Iran Plateau, dating back to 12,000 years ago and still inhabitance of around 150 people (mostly hospitable elderly). The traditional houses of the village are hewn into rocks with a type of hard pointed stone and include corridors, pillars and a stove which is used for both cooking and heating the home during winters. Meymand is believed to be similar to the Kandovan village in East Azerbaijan Province. Located between a desert and mountain, Meymand enjoys a mountainous climate with cold winters and exceedingly hot summers and abundant with mulberry and blackberry trees.

 

 

     The people who live in this village have maintained their original architecture, traditions, and somewhat their language. The local language contains many words from the ancient Sassanid and Pahlavi languages, barely changing due to the isolation of the village. The economy of the villagers is based on agriculture, animal husbandry and carpet weaving; but carpet weaving is more important to the extent that Meymand carpets enjoy international fame. Since carpet weaving is prevalent in the area, other related jobs such as dyeing, felt making, weaving of Gilims and crochet working are common too. The villagers have done little to add color to the natural earth tones of the landscape. Their homes and streets have no potted flowers or ornamental plants.

     Meymand village is a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 2015.

  • Shahdad Desert

     Shahdad Desert is 100 Kilometers away from Kerman. It is located 30 Kilometers east of Dasht-e Lut and overlooks a plain called Tekab that makes up the main part of Khabis. This region is known as one of the Geothermal Poles among the geologists. The local climate is hot and dry. Shahdad lands are all covered with Citrus and palm groves. Near Shahdad, there are gravellies (desert vases) that are sometimes 10 Meters long, while the longest gravelly of African deserts are 3 Meters long. In Shahdad Desert, there are 100 hectares of salt marsh in the shape of boiling eggs that are unique in the world.

 

 

     Throughout Shahdad, monuments related to the fourth millennium BC to the Islamic and contemporary periods such as cemeteries, forts, caravanserais, etc. can be observed. But the most important and unique asset of this desert region are yardangs. With regard to roughness and genesis, yardangs are unique in the world and there are numerous secrets of the principles and properties of their genesis. Looking at them from a far distance associates them with a big city with numerous skyscrapers and this is the reason for foreign tourists calling it City of the Ghosts.

 

 

  • Ganjali Khan Complex

     This is a Safavid-era building complex, located in the old center of Kerman. The complex is composed of a school, a square, a Caravanserai, a bathhouse, an Ab_Anbar (water reservoir), a mint, a mosque and a bazaar. Ganjali Khan Complex was built by Ganjali Khan who governed Kerman, Sistan and Kandahar provinces from 1596 to 1621 under Safavid Shah Abbas I. A number of inscriptions laid inside the complex indicate the exact date when these places have been built. 

 

 

     The architect of the complex was Mohammad Soltani from Yazd. The complex covers an area of 11000 square meters and is centered on a large public square—ninety-nine meters by fifty-four meters—which is aligned with Vakil Bazaar running east-west to its south. The square is enveloped by bazaar arcades to the north, south and west and is flanked by the Ganjali Caravanserai to the east. The entrance to the Ganjali bathhouse is located along a section of Vakil Bazaar south of the square, known as Ganjali Khan Bazaar. The complex was built in Isfahani style of architecture.

 

 

  • Shazdeh Garden

     This remarkable garden located on the outskirts of Mahan, was made in the 1890s by the Governor of Kerman. It is a rectangular green oasis surrounded by brown desert. There are pavilions and a central canal. The garden is 5.5 hectares with a rectangular shape and a wall around it. It consists of an entrance structure and gate at the lower end and a two-floor residential structure at the upper end. The distance between these two is ornamented with water fountains that are engineered by the natural incline of the land. The garden is a fine example of Persian gardens that take advantage of suitable natural climate. The garden was built originally for Mohammad Hasan Khan Qajar Sardari Iravani ca. 1850 and was extended ca.1870 by Abdolhamid Mirza Naserodollehand during the eleven years of his governorship in the Qajar dynasty. The construction was left unfinished, due to the death of Abdolhamid Mirza in the early 1890s.

 

 

  • Shah Nematollah Vali Shrine

     This is a historical complex, located in Mahan, which contains the mausoleum (i.e. tomb) of Shah Nematollah Vali, the renowned Iranian mystic and poet. Shah Nematollah Vali died in 1431 aged over 100. In 1436 a shrine was erected in his honor and became a pilgrimage site; with the attention of successive rulers contributing various additions over the centuries. The shrine complex comprises four courtyards, a reflecting pool, a mosque and twin minarets covered with turquoise tiles from the bottom up to the cupola. The earliest construction is attributed to the Bahmanid ruler Ahmed I Vali who erected the sanctuary chamber in 1436. Shah Abbas I undertook extensions and renovations in 1601, including reconstruction of the tiled blue dome, described as ―one of the most magnificent architectural masterpieces in old Persia‖. During the Qajar period the site was particularly popular, necessitating the construction of additional courtyards to accommodate increased numbers of pilgrims. The minarets also date from this period. The small room where Nematollah Vali prayed and meditated contains plasterwork and tile decorations. The complex is also famous for its tile-work and seven ancient wooden doors. The complex includes some courtyards and other sections which are as follows when one moves from the street toward the interior of the mosque: Atabaki courtyard, Vakil-ol-Molki courtyard, Modir-ol-Molki portico, the shrine, Shah Abbasi portico, Mirdamad courtyard and Hosseiniyeh courtyard.

 

 

  • Fath Abad Garden

     Fath Abad Garden, is one of the most beautiful gardens in Iran and a valuable historical place made in Qajar period, during Mohammad Shah's reign, around 1870. It is famous for its architecture and is considered as an architectural masterpiece of Qajar period. The founder of Fath Abad Garden was a person named “Fazl Ali Khan-e Mir Panjeh Gharebaghi” also known as “Fazl Ali Khan Biglari”. Biglari was not his family rather it was a title given to Kerman's old governors. Fazl Ali Khan was appointed as Kerman's governor in Mohammad Shah's reign period in 1876. The Fath Abad Garden is rectangular with approximately 440 meters long and 260 meters width, stretched from northwest to southwest.

 

 

  • Jebellieh Dome

     In the eastern section of Kerman city toward the Saheb-ol-Zaman mosque, there is a stone - made dome known as Kobra dome. The dome's plan is octagonal and on each side, there are many arch vaults. There is no precise information on the construction date and application of the monument. The architectural style of the monument, however, suggests that the dome can be attributed to late Sassanid era (266 - 651 AD), which has been later repaired during early Islamic period. 

 

 

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