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Toxicology is a scientific discipline, overlapping with biology, chemistry, pharmacology, and medicine, that involves the study of the adverse effects of chemical and biological substances on living organisms.

The contributions and activities of toxicologists are diverse and widespread. In the biomedical area, toxicologists are concerned with mechanisms of action and exposure to chemical agents as a cause of acute and chronic illness. Toxicologists contribute to physiology and pharmacology by using toxic agents to understand physiological phenomena. Toxicologists also participate in the development of standards and regulations designed to protect human health and the environment from the adverse effects of chemicals.

Environmental toxicologists have expanded toxicology to study the effects of chemicals in flora and fauna. Molecular toxicologists are studying the mechanisms by which toxicants modulate cell growth and differentiation and cells respond to toxicants at the level of the gene and protein through different signaling pathways.

Toxicology is a scientific discipline, overlapping with biology, chemistry, pharmacology, and medicine, that involves the study of the adverse effects of chemical and biological substances on living organisms. Toxicology, is both a science and an art. The science of toxicology is defined as the observational and data- gathering phase, whereas the art of toxicology consists of the utilization of the data to predict outcomes of exposure in human and animal populations. In most cases, these phases are linked because the facts generated by the science of toxicology are used to develop extrapolations and hypotheses to explain the adverse effects of chemical agents. The contributions and activities of toxicologists are diverse and widespread. In the biomedical area, toxicologists are concerned with mechanisms of action and exposure to chemical agents as a cause of acute and chronic illness. Toxicologists contribute to physiology and pharmacology by using toxic agents to understand physiological phenomena. They are involved in the recognition, identification, and quantification of hazards resulting from occupational exposure to chemicals and the public health aspects of chemicals in air, water, and other parts of the environment, foods, and drugs.  Toxicologists also participate in the development of standards and regulations designed to protect human health and the environment from the adverse effects of chemicals. Environmental toxicologists have expanded toxicology to study the effects of chemicals in flora and fauna.

Molecular toxicologists are studying the mechanisms by which toxicants modulate cell growth and differentiation and cells respond to toxicants at the level of the gene and protein through different signaling pathways.

In all branches of toxicology, scientists explore the mechanisms by which chemicals produce adverse effects in biological systems.

 


Basic Information:
Program Type: Degree Based
Level Of study: Ph.D.
School / Faculty: Pharmacy
Department: Pharmacodynamics and Toxicology
Major (Name Of Program): Toxicology
This program contact information:
Telephone: +98 5131801192
Fax: +98 5138823251
Mobile: 09155241866
Email Address: ImenM@mums.ac.ir
Address: Department of Pharmacodynamics and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Mashhad University Of Medical Sciences
Contact Person Name: Mohsen Imenshahidi
Program Detail:
Length of Training:

4-5  years

Language Requirement:

Persian/English

Admission Requirement:

Doctor of Pharmacy

Doctor of Medicine

Doctor of Veterinary

Master’s degree in toxicology

Bachelor of Pharmacy

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