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Babol, Known as "Orange Blossom City" , also Romanized as Bābol; formerly known as Barfrouch) is the capital of Babol County, Mazandaran Province, Iran. Babol is divided into two metropolitan areas (Under Iranian law). At the 2012 census, its population was 219,467, in 66,944 families.


Babol is located in the north of Iran, between the northern slopes of the Alborz Mountains and southern coast of the Caspian Sea. Babol is on the north-east of Tehran and is one of the most important cities in the north of Iran. It is the region's chief center. Babol is a new name for the site of the ancient city of Mamatir, that then was named as Barforush. The city receives abundant rainfall. It is famous for its orange farms, for which it is dubbed "the city of orange blossoms".

History and name

Founded in the 16th century, it was built on the site of the ancient city of Mamtir (deriving from "Mah Mithra" "great Mithra). Mithra or 'The Mediator' was believed to be the savior of creation from the threat of darkness and the one who stands between the light of Ahura Mazda and the darkness of Ahriman. Babol was formerly called Barforushdeh (meaning Market town) and Barforush afterwards. The city was later named Barforoush, which literally means market town. In 1931, the founder of the Pahlavi Dynasty Reza Shah (1878-1944) ordered urban planning efforts to commence in the city and changed its name to Babol, which means city with abundant water supply.

Geography and climate

The city is located approximately 20 kilometers south of Caspian Sea on the west bank of BabolRud River and receives abundant annual rainfall. Babol borders Babolsar and Fereydunkenar to the north, Qaem Shahr and Shirgah District to the east, Savadkuh to the southeast, Firuzkuh to the South and Amol to the west. Babol University is famous for its spectacular scenery.

Map showing the location of Babol county as well as Babol city in Mazandaran.

The Köppen-Geiger climate classification system classifies its climate as hot-summer Mediterranean (Csa).

hideClimate data for Babol
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 12.9
Daily mean °C (°F) 8.6
Average low °C (°F) 4.4
Average precipitation mm (inches) 86
Source:, altitude: 0m[6]


In 2012 population census calculation of the city,the population was 219,467 people (79,837 households) and a population of 495,472 people in the located in the city.


The ruins of Shah Abbas I's palace are located in the city. Mohammad Hassan Khan bridge is also one of the most ancient buildings of Mazandaran. It was built by the king Mohammad Hassan Khan Qajar, the ancestor of Agha Mohammad Khan Qajar as the main road from Babol to Amol. Now it is known as the old road of Babol to Amol. Another nice scenery is Babol Noshirvani Park, which is the biggest park including playground located in the north part of Iran, located almost in the vicinity of Caspian Sea. Babol is home to important and intact forests and jungles. for instance, Shiadeh, the unique and intact forest, is located in south-east Babol. Shiadeh is the name of a rural area near the jungle.

Filband, a village near the northern Iranian city of Babol, is famous for its skies which are full of interconnected cumulus clouds, especially in springtime.

Historical and natural attractions



  • Mohammad Hassan Khan bridge
  • Babol Royal Palace
  • Babol Museum
  • Emamzadeh Ghasem
  • Kazem Beik Mosque
  • Watchtower
  • Babol Jameh Mosque
  • Mohaddesin Mosque
  • Tekyeh Moghri Kola
  • Sultan Mohammad Taher Tomb Tower
  • Darvish Fakhr Al-Din Tomb
  • Post Building
  • Head University of Medical Sciences
  • Ibn Shahr Ashub Tomb
  • Sarast Tower
  • Darvish Alam-bazi Tower
  • Hasirforoshan Mosque
  • Azroud Thermal Spring
  • Babolroud
  • Babolkenar Forest Park
  • Historic homes Qajansb
  • Aghajan Nasab House
  • Osia House
  • Najafi Mansion
  • Sheikh Mousa Yaylak and Waterfall
  • Kimoun Waterfall
  • Shiadeh Dam
  • Saghanefar Kija Tekyeh
  • Porang High School
  • Shiadeh Saghanefar
  • Abuol Hasan Kola Saghanefar
  • Mulana Mosque
  • Tirkan Waterfall
  • Haft Waterfall
  • Filband Village
  • Bandpey Village
  • Pir Alam Tekyeh
  • Moftakher ul-Mamalek Caravanserai
  • Sadr Hawza
  • Chahar Suq Mosque
  • Lafoor Jungle
  • Bagh-e Ferdows
  • Noshirvani Park


Commerce and trading are the backbone of the city's economy since it is the largest commercial center for Mazandaran province, partially due to its location at the center of the province and also the large population of villages around the city making Babol county the most populated county in the province. Babol produces food and textiles — as well as other processed goods . Including orangeslemons, and tangerines. There are many rice farms around the city, and, until about 20 years ago, teatobacco, and cotton were processed.

Colleges and universities

As the largest commercial center the city of Babol also hosts large number of universities province. Universities include:

  • Babol University of Medical Sciences
  • Babol Noshirvani University of Technology The university is an influential center for academic research in Iran, due to which it has been consistently ranked among the top schools in the country. BNUT is currently ranked 1st among all Iranian universities according to Times Higher Education (THE) World University Rankings. THE has also ranked BNUT between 351st and 400th among world universities, 55th among the world's young universities, as well as 43rd among Asian universities.
  • Mazandaran University of Science and Technology
  • Educators University - Education Center Martyr Rajai Babol
  • PNU - Babol Center
  • PNU - Bandpey Unit
  • Islamic Azad University - Babol Unit
  • University of Applied Science - Babol Unit
  • Babol Vocational College of Imam Sadiq
  • Mazandaran Institute of Technology
  • Rahedanesh Institute of Higher Education
  • Tabari Institute of Higher Education
  • Aryan Institute of Science and Technology
  • Institute of Applied Science of Art and Culture - Unit 4 Of Babol
  • Institute of Applied Science Technology Jahad Daneshgahi
  • Institute of Applied Science -Unit Of Western Bandpey
  • Vocational College of Sama - Babol Unit
  • Vocational College of AzZahra - Babol Unit

Health centers and hotels

  • Negin Hotel
  • Reza Hotel
  • Marjan Hotel
  • Ayatollah Rouhani Hospital
  • Babol Clinic
  • Shahid Beheshti Hospital
  • Fatemeh Al-Zahra Hospital
  • Yahya Nejad Hospital
  • 17 Shahrivar Hospital
  • Mehregan Hospital


Major corporations

  • Iran Khodro Mazandaran
  • Babol Machine Mfg. & Ind
  • MSco
  • Khazar Khodro Babol.Co


Babol is home to Iranian Basketball Super League team BEEM Mazandaran BC which plays in the city's Shahid Sojoodi Arena. BEEM also had a popular volleyball team in the Iranian Super League in 2008–2009. Now Babol have a 2 Team in wrestling, Bime Razi and Arash Zin. They have a popular football club, Khooneh Be Khooneh. Khooneh Be Khooneh play in 1nd division (after Premier League) in Iranian system football but they could going to finals of Hazfi Cup in 2016–17. They could not promote to Premier League for 1 Goal. Babol is host of Freestyle Wrestling Club World Cup in December 2018.

Notable people

عکس امیر بیژن بیژنی از خوشنویسی و موسیقی می‌گوید - اسکان نيوز آيت‏اللَّه شيخ هادي روحاني محمدسعید بارفروشی مازندرانی - دانشنامه‌ی اسلامی
Amir Pazevari Bijan Bijani Ayatollah Hadi Rouhani Hossein Fallah Noshirvani Saied Al'olama
Karim Motamedi - کریم معتمدی Maziyar2-zr.jpg Alireza Firouzja
Karim Motamedi Maziar Davoud Rashidi Alireza Firouzja Emam-Ali Habibi
پرویز بهرام.jpg Mohammad Hossein Mahdavian at 34th Fajr.jpg Nima Alamian.jpg
Parviz Bahram Mohammad Hossein Mahdavian Nima Alamian Hadi Norouzi Noshad Alamian


Programs Spotlight
Study Medical-Surgical Nursing at MUBabol
Medical-Surgical Nursing is a branch of nursing in which the health and disease of adult clients are of the main concern. Graduates of this program can act more effectively in hospitals as well as other communities to prevent diseases and provide care. 
The graduates can fulfill various tasks from prevention to rehabilitation in order to maintain and promote health and provide efficient care in case of diseases or accidents.
It is a valuable experience   to perform the program in Islamic Republic of Iran. The curriculum, updated in recent years, would be well-matched with ever-changing needs of developing countries and newly-emerging diseases around the globe.
Study Geriatric Nursing at MUBabol
Geriatric Nursing is a branch of nursing in the framework of holistic care and health promotion policies for the elderly. The graduates provide specialist services to the elderly, including health promotion practices, rehabilitation services and social welfare assistance.   
The graduates are expert enough to provide effective care, from prevention to rehabilitation, for the elderly, their families and the society, at large.  They are able to diagnose the biological, psychological, social as well as cultural needs of the elderly and perform appropriate interventions, like specific rehabilitation services, to promote the quality of their health, by developing principles of good human relationships.    
The program intends to provide efficient nursing care to the elderly by graduates with necessary knowledge, attitude, and capabilities in this field. Accordingly, old people and their families can attain their highest potentials in function and competency. They can have, maintain and promote their quality of life as far as possible. In addition, due measures are adopted to fulfill their special needs and their coping behaviors with life changes (due to age process and possible disabilities) are supported. In terms of social functioning, they are helped to preserve their essential daily activities by helping them to have an active social presence. 
Study Persian Medicine at MUBabol

The School of Traditional Medicine develops activities on Traditional Medicine and aims to provide students with the opportunity to promote their skills both in theory and practice in different fields of Clinical Traditional Medicine as well as Material Medicine.

The BUMS School of Traditional Medicine acquired its licence in (2012) as the forth of its kind in Iran.

At present,this school only accepts students from residents,general physicians,specialists,and ultra-specialists for a clinical ph.D course.

Study Physiotherapy at MUBabol

Babol University of Medical Sciences started the initial measures in 1991 to launch the field of physiotherapy. The total activities of the university officials during consecutive years eventually led to the establishment of a bachelor's degree in physiotherapy in 2008 and the admission of 20 students. It was officially inaugurated by Dr. Prof. Samiei in 2016. The area of ​​the faculty is 2750 square meters and it has theoretical, practical, amphitheater and library classes and independent rooms for professors and group leaders.

Study D.D.S at MUBabol

The School of Dentistry has more than (70) faculty members who provide service for the students of General Dentistry and residents of the subspecialists and dentistry.

Academic Program for the undergraduates is Doctor of Dental Surgery(D.D.S) with the duration of (6) years.

School of Dentistry Dean:Dr.Ehsan Mo'odi (Assistant Professor/specialist D.D.S radiology of mouth).

Study Medicine at MUBabol

The Medical School has comprehensive programs on clinical sciences covering M.D.,Residency(speciality and sub-speciality),and fellowship programs.

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